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This combination of Associated Press file photos shows, left, toll collector Anthony Morris working a booth at the Rip Van Winkle Bridge in Catskill, N.Y., in 2012, and, right, Manisha Padhye holding up an E-Z Pass in 2009, in Broadview Heights, Ohio. Many middle-class workers have lost jobs because powerful software and computerized machines are doing tasks that only humans could do before.

Associated Press