Almost 3 out of every 100 American adults were in prison or on probation or parole in 1995, according to a Justice Department study released Sunday.
The Bureau of Justice Statistics said there were 3 million people on probation at the end of the year, up 4 percent during the year; 700,000 on parole, up 1 percent; and nearly 1.6 million in federal, state and local jails, up six percent.
That total of 5.3 million people was 2.8 percent of American adults.
The department said that since 1980 the total number under correctional supervision had almost tripled, from 1.84 million to 5.36 million, with an average annual growth rate of 7.4 percent.
Half of those on probation were on probation for a felony.
Among the states, Texas had the greatest number of people on probation or parole, with 518,000, followed by California with 378,000.
Women made up about 21 percent of the nation’s probationers and about 10 percent of parolees.