In 1765: The Stamp Act Congress convened in New York to draw up colonial grievances against England.
In 1777: The second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. (The British forces surrendered 10 days later.)
In 1849: Author Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore, Md., at age 40.
In 1954: Marian Anderson became the first black singer hired by the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
In 1960: Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates.
In 1982: The Andrew Lloyd Webber-Tim Rice musical “Cats” opened on Broadway.
In 1985: Palestinian gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean with more than 400 people aboard.