October 29, 1997 in Nation/World

The World On Fire Burning In The Huge Amazon Rain Forest Leaves An Indelible Mark On Nature

Michael Astor Associated Press
 

This year’s burning season in the Amazon rain forest is so bad even a lake is on fire.

Two factors - the worst drought in 25 years and government policy that encourages farmers to burn their land - are speeding destruction of the world’s largest wilderness, not to mention choking inhabitants of the Amazon’s largest city with thick smoke.

At the Balbina dam reservoir, a record-low water level has exposed trees that were long submerged. For months they dried, then caught fire.

“Even the trees in the lake are burning. I’ve never seen anything like it,” said Abner Brandao de Souza of Ibama, the government’s environmental protection agency.

A dense haze spews from the thousands of fires that have spread with ease over the parched Amazon, an area nearly two-thirds the size of the continental United States. The haze is choking the 1.1 million residents of the northern city of Manaus.

“You leave the house in the morning, and you step into a thick haze,” secretary Selena Oliveira said.

Fires at this time of year are common in heavily deforested Amazon states such as Mato Grosso and Para, where land is regularly burned for pasture. But the fires now are the worst in memory - and the intensity is new here in Amazonas state, Brazil’s largest, where nearly 98 percent of the original forest canopy remains intact.

Worse, the fires have spread into virgin forest, where deep roots usually keep trees so moist they rarely burn. By most estimates, at least 10 percent of the 2 million square-mile Amazon has been destroyed.

There are no wide-scale efforts to stamp out the blazes because they mostly are cases of landowners burning on their own property. And there is nothing to stop the smoke.

Doctors say the number of people seeking treatment for respiratory ailments has jumped 30 percent since smoke began smothering the city in mid-September.

Before scant showers fell in mid-October, the region had gone 70 days without rain.

The water level at Balbina dam, 100 miles north of Manaus, has plunged to the point that the city is forced to ration energy. Some neighborhoods have electricity for only six hours a day. Two babies died at a maternity ward that lacked a private generator to power their incubators.

El Nino is blamed for the drought. The cyclical phenomenon of warm Pacific Ocean currents is sending tropical storms north to desert regions such as Baja California and Arizona, and leaving normally moist areas thirsty.

Even more fires are burning in Southeast Asia, where El Nino also has caused drought, spreading dangerous, choking haze over Indonesia, Malaysia and other nations.

No one knows when El Nino will end, and environmentalists fear next year may be worse.

“El Nino is just beginning. It should last long enough to make next year’s dry season longer and hotter,” said Roberto Kishinani, director of Greenpeace in Brazil.

But another problem is strictly man-made - Brazil’s policy of indirectly encouraging farmers to burn their land.

Chain saw in hand, Idalino Cordeiro de Sousa, 34, cleared the trees on the plot he received from a federal land-distribution institute called Incra. He says it’s the only way to obtain credit to buy an irrigation system.

“What else are we going to do?” he said.

Incra said it may change that policy. Still, Brazilian law allows settlers to cut and burn up to eight acres without authorization from Ibama, the environmental protection agency. The government says small farmers account for 40 percent of Amazon deforestation.

Sousa will sell the valuable tropical wood and burn off what’s left. Thick scrub quickly replaces the forest, but the weak soil must periodically be fertilized with ashes, so burning becomes perennial.

It also makes burning easier. Because trees pump water vapor into the air through their leaves, fewer trees means drier air.

“One of the big fears in the future is that fires could take off into the primary forest, the way they’ve done in Indonesia,” said Philip Fearnside, an American scientist at the National Institute for Amazon Research in Manaus.

Fearnside warns that the current ecological crisis in Indonesia is the face of things to come in the Amazon.

MEMO: This sidebar appeared with the story:

BRAZIL EMISSIONS

As the Brazilian rain forest burns, greenhouse gases spew into the atmosphere. While experts disagree on how much is released, they agree that carbon dioxide and methane stay in the air for years.

Brazil says it produces less than 2 percent of the world’s greenhouse gases, but Philip Fearnside, an American scientist at the National Institute for Amazon Research, said the government agency that monitors burning and deforestation, is only counting a third of the emissions. In reality, “it’s at least 6 percent,” he said.

The United States produces about 26 percent - mostly from car exhaust and other emissions.

This sidebar appeared with the story: BRAZIL EMISSIONS As the Brazilian rain forest burns, greenhouse gases spew into the atmosphere. While experts disagree on how much is released, they agree that carbon dioxide and methane stay in the air for years. Brazil says it produces less than 2 percent of the world’s greenhouse gases, but Philip Fearnside, an American scientist at the National Institute for Amazon Research, said the government agency that monitors burning and deforestation, is only counting a third of the emissions. In reality, “it’s at least 6 percent,” he said. The United States produces about 26 percent - mostly from car exhaust and other emissions.


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