In 1609: English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the river that now bears his name.
In 1918: During World War I, U.S. forces led by Gen. John J. Pershing launched an attack on the German-occupied St. Mihiel salient north of Verdun, France.
In 1938: In a speech in Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.
In 1977: South African black student leader Steven Biko died while in police custody, triggering an international outcry.
In 1986: Joseph Cicippio, the acting comptroller at the American University in Beirut, was kidnapped; he was released in December 1991.
In 1988: Hurricane Gilbert slammed into Jamaica with torrential rains and winds of 145 mph, killing 45 people and causing damage estimated at up to $1 billion.