1866: Lucy B. Hobbs became the first woman to graduate from a dental school, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati.
1878: The first telephone directory was issued, by the District Telephone Company of New Haven, Conn.
1885: The Washington Monument was dedicated.
1916: The World War I Battle of Verdun began in France.
1925: The New Yorker magazine made its debut.
1947: Edwin H. Land publicly demonstrated his Polaroid Land camera, which could produce a black-and-white photograph in 60 seconds.
1965: Former Black Muslim leader Malcolm X, 39, was shot to death in New York by assassins identified as Black Muslims.
1972: President Nixon began his historic visit to China.
1973: Israeli fighter planes shot down a Libyan Airlines jet over the Sinai Desert, killing more than 100 people.