In 1778: English navigator Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he dubbed the “Sandwich Islands.”
In 1911: The first landing of an aircraft on a ship took place as pilot Eugene B. Ely flew onto the deck of the USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco harbor.
In 1912: English explorer Robert F. Scott and his expedition reached the South Pole, only to discover that Roald Amundsen had gotten there first. (Scott and his party died during the return trip.)
In 1919: The World War I Peace Congress opened in Versailles, France.