Eighty years ago, my mother was in grade school, where paste was made by mixing a little flour and water together. Memories of that simple glue came back to her when she and I recently stood in my kitchen, mixing two small batches of flour and water. First I mixed regular “better for bread” flour with water in a little dish, then I did the same with special test flour made from a new type of durum wheat. The first mixture was a pasty, lightest-of-light-tan color, and the second had a pale but clearly evident yellow hue.
Durum is an unusual type of wheat, one with kernels so hard we don’t generally make it into flour at all. Instead, regular durum is ground only to about the consistency of sand-size grains known as semolina, which is used to make pasta. In North America, durum wheat is grown in the dry parts of Montana, North Dakota and Saskatchewan, as well as in some parts of the desert southwest.
In some ways, durum is pretty primitive stuff. In the lingo of plant genetics, it’s “tetraploid” rather than “hexaploid,” like most wheat. But durum has some highly desirable characteristics. It has better drought resistance and, in some instances, better disease resistance than the more common types of wheat.
It’s the hardness of the kernels of durum that has limited its culinary uses over the ages to pasta and couscous. Softer wheat has been made into flour and transformed into bread, gravies and all the rest of it.
Enter onto the scene wheat researcher Craig Morris of the Agricultural Research Service, housed on the campus of Washington State University. For 10 years Morris has used classic wheat-breeding techniques to introduce the genes for a soft kernel into durum wheat. Patient work in greenhouses and ultimately a few acres of farm trials have been going on year after year.
Now Morris can announce that he’s succeeded in his quest. He’s put the genetic information for soft kernels into the durum wheat plant. Hence my little experiment at home in the kitchen using test durum flour Morris gave me.
“In some places, durum can out-yield hexaploid wheat,” Morris said to me in his lab. “We’ve thrown off the shackles of the hard kernel of durum. The sky is now the limit.”
The new soft durum can still be used to make pasta. It requires less energy to mill into semolina than hard durum, so that’s a positive. And perhaps better still, the new soft durum can also make flour and go into all the culinary products we are used to making from hexaploid wheat.
Morris and his co-workers are now waiting for the patent on the new type of durum wheat to be secured.
“Once we have that, soft durum is ready for prime time,” Morris said with a smile.